Special characters

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These special characters are shown in the table below they supplement the standard ASCII characters and ISO-8859-1 characters.


[edit] Explanations

The numbers used to represent these characters are actually the Unicode values. (See UTF-8) The page Named character references shows all of the Unicode characters by name as supported in HTML5.

In some cases the same glyph will appear for two different characters. It is still important to use the correct number code or word code since some processing programs such as MathML may be depending on it to properly format the data.

The Greek alphabet is only shown by samples. As can be seen from the samples it lies between #913 and #937 for upper case and from #945 to #969 for lower case. In Unicode this would be U-0391 to U-03A9 and U-03B1 to U-03C9. (These are hexadecimal digits.) PML supports the full Greek alphabet (and Hebrew).

The table shows the decimal values for numeric entries but hexadecimal values will work just as well. For example decimal character reference for the Euro symbol (€) is € and the hexadecimal character reference &#x20AC. The table also shows the character entity references called word code in the table. These are standard HTML entity references.

[edit] Code Chart

Notes Column:

The codes in the range of 300's in the table below are needed to augment ISO-8859-1 to support the pronunciation guide in a dictionary and the alphabet of some European countries. See also ISO-8859-15. The Word Code is the Entity reference if available.

Number CodeWord CodeDescriptionCharacterNotes
Ālong A (A macron)Ā4
ālong a (a macron)ā4
Ăshort A (A breve)Ă4
ăshort a (a breve)ă4
Ēlong EĒ4
ēlong eē4
Ĕshort EĔ
ĕshort eĕ4
Īlong IĪ4
īlong iī4
Ĭshort IĬ
ĭshort iĭ4
Ōlong OŌ
ōlong oō4
Ŏshort OŎ
ŏshort oŏ4
ŒŒcapital ligature OEŒ2,4
œœsmall ligature oeœ2,4
ŠŠlarge S caronŠ4
ššsmall s caronš4
Ūlong UŪ
ūlong uū4
Ŭshort UŬ
ŭshort uŭ4
ŸŸcapital Y umlatŸ2,4
ŽŽlarge Z caronŽ4
žžsmall z caronž4
ƒƒfunction (florin)ƒ2,4
ʻ ʻokina/ʻáyin/ʻaynʻ
ˆ  Circumflex accent. ˆ3
ˇ  Caron/Hacek ˇ1,2,3,4
˘  Breve ˘1,2,3,4
˙  Dot Accent (above)˙1,2,3,4
˚  Ring (above) ˚1,2,3
˛  Ogonek ˛1,2,3
˜˜small tilde˜2,3
˝  Double Acute Accent˝1,2,3
Α ΑCapital Alpha Α4
Β ΒBeta Β4
Γ ΓGamma Γ4
Δ Δdelta Δ4
Π ΠCapital Pi Π1,2,4
Σ Σ Sigma Σ1,2,4
Ω ΩOmega Ω1,2,4
α αalpha α4
β βbeta β4
γ γgamma γ4
δ δdelta δ4
π π small pi π1,2,3,4
ω ω small omegaω4
ϖ ϖ Greek PIVϖ1,2
  en space 
  em space 
  thin space 
  hair space 
​ zero width space 
‌‌zero width non joiner2
‍‍zero width joiner
‑ non-breaking hyphen4
––en dash2,4
——em dash2,4
‘‘left single curly quote2,4
’’right single curly quote2,4
‚‚single low 9 quote2,4
““left double curly quote2,4
””right double curly quote2,4
„„double low 9 quote2,4
‡‡double dagger2,4
……horizontal ellipse2,4
 &nnbsp;narrow non-breaking space[1]
‰‰per mille sign2
″″double prime 
‸ caret4
‹‹single left angle quote2,4
››single right angle quote2,4
‽ interrobang4
⁂ asterism4
⁄ ⁄ Fraction Slash[2] 1,2
€ € Euro 1,2
ℓ stylized l
™™trademark sign2,4
Ω Ohm Sign 1,2
←←leftward arrow4
↑↑up arrow
→→rightward arrow4
↓↓down arrow
↔↔double headed arrow
∂ ∂Partial Differential 1,2,4
∆ Increment
∏ ∏ N-Ary Product1,2
∑ ∑ N-Ary Summation1,2
− − minus (subtraction)
√ √Square Root 1,2,4
∞ ∞ Infinity 1,2,4
∟ Right Angle
∥ parallel to4
∩ Intersection
∫ ∫ Integral 1,2,4
∴∴therefore triangle
∼ ∼ Similar To 1,2
≈ ≈ Almost equal 1,2
≠ ≠ Not Equal 1,2,4
≡≡Equivalent to
≤ ≤ Less Than or Equal To 1,2
≥ ≥ Greater Than or Equal To 1,2
◊ ◊ Open Diamond/Lozenge 1,2
♠♠spades suit4
♡  White Heart Suit 4
♢  White Diamond Suit 1,2,4
♣ ♣club suit 4
♤  White Spade Suit
♥ ♥hearts suit
♦ ♦diamond Suit
♧  White Club Suit
ff  Ligature ff
fi  Ligature fi 1,2
fl  Ligature fl 1,2,4
ſt  Ligature ft

[edit] footnotes

  1. If you do not have support for this character you could use <span style="font-size: 50%">&nbsp;</span> as a substitute.
  2. The &frasl; character allows you to create fractions that flow more proportionately with the surrounding text. 1/2 vs. 12 and 3/4 vs. 34
  • another method using small text: 12 or 34 [or with extra spacing & superscripts  2 or  4 ]
  • and another method using a mixture: 1/2 or 3/4 - using < sup > with the standard /
  • and another method using a mixture: 1/2 or 3/4 - using < small > and < sup > with standard /
  • and another method using a mixture: 12 or 34 - using < sup > with & frasl;

Note that the use of ligatures in text may cause searches to not find the character sequence. They can also cause problems when a document is converted if the new fonts in use does not contain the ligature.

[edit] Using special characters in Windows

You can use a character map to show and use all of the characters available in a particular font set that you have on your system. Select "Start » Programs » Accessories » System Tools » Character Map" to load the character map. You can then use copy and paste to select and use these symbols in your document.

[edit] For more information


Wikipedia List of XML and HTML character entity references

Penn State HTML - Special Entity Codes

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