Special characters

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These special characters are shown in the table below they supplement the standard ASCII characters and ISO-8859-1 characters. This collection is often used in eBooks.


[edit] Explanations

The numbers used to represent these characters are actually the Unicode values shown as decimal numbers. (See UTF-8) The page Named character references shows all of the Unicode characters by name as supported in HTML5. A column for Unicode has been added to this chart.

In some cases the same glyph will appear for two different characters. It is still important to use the correct number code or word code since some processing programs such as MathML may be depending on it to properly format the data.

The Greek alphabet is only shown by samples. As can be seen from the samples it lies between #913 and #937 for upper case and from #945 to #969 for lower case. In Unicode this would be U-0391 to U-03A9 and U-03B1 to U-03C9. (These are hexadecimal digits.) PML supports the full Greek alphabet (and Hebrew).

The table shows the decimal values for numeric entries but hexadecimal values will work just as well. For example decimal character reference for the Euro symbol (€) is € and the hexadecimal character reference &#x20AC. The Unicode column is made up of hex characters. The table also shows the character entity references called word code in the table. These are standard HTML entities references.

[edit] Using special characters in Windows

You can use a character map to show and use all of the characters available in a particular font set that you have on your system. Select "Start » Programs » Accessories » System Tools » Character Map" to load the character map. You can then use copy and paste to select and use these symbols in your document.

[edit] Code Chart

Notes Column:

The codes in the range of 300's in the table below are needed to augment ISO-8859-1 to support the pronunciation guide in a dictionary and the alphabet of some European countries. See also ISO-8859-15. The Word Code is the Entity reference if available.

Number CodeWord CodeDescriptionCharacterUnicodeNotes
Ālong A (A macron)ĀU+001004
ālong a (a macron)āU+001014
Ăshort A (A breve)ĂU+001024
ăshort a (a breve)ăU+001034
Ēlong EĒU+001124
ēlong eēU+001134
Ĕshort EĔU+00114
ĕshort eĕU+001154
Īlong IĪU+0012A4
īlong iīU+0012B4
Ĭshort IĬU+0012C
ĭshort iĭU+0012D4
Ōlong OŌU+0014C
ōlong oōU+0014D4
Ŏshort OŎU+0014E
ŏshort oŏU+0014F4
ŒŒcapital ligature OEŒU+001522,4
œœsmall ligature oeœU+001532,4
ŠŠlarge S caronŠU+001604
ššsmall s caronšU+001614
Ūlong UŪU+0016A
ūlong uūU+0016B4
Ŭshort UŬU+0016C
ŭshort uŭU+0016D4
ŸŸcapital Y umlatŸU+001782,4
ŽŽlarge Z caronŽU+0017D4
žžsmall z caronžU+0017E4
ſlatin small sſU+0017F
ƒƒfunction (florin)ƒU+001922,4
ʃsmall eshʃU+00283
ʻ ʻokina/ʻáyin/ʻaynʻU+002BB
ˆ  Circumflex accent. ˆU+002C63
ˇ  Caron/Hacek ˇU+002C71,2,3,4
˘  Breve ˘U+002D81,2,3,4
˙  Dot Accent (above)˙U+002D91,2,3,4
˚  Ring (above) ˚U+002DA1,2,3
˛  Ogonek ˛U+002DB1,2,3
˜˜small tilde˜U+002DC2,3
˝  Double Acute Accent˝U+002DD1,2,3
Α ΑCapital Alpha ΑU+003914
Β ΒBeta ΒU+003924
Γ ΓGamma ΓU+003934
Δ Δdelta ΔU+003944
Π ΠCapital Pi ΠU+003A01,2,4
Σ Σ Sigma ΣU+003A31,2,4
Ω ΩOmega ΩU+003A91,2,4
α αalpha αU+003B14
β βbeta βU+003B24
γ γgamma γU+003B34
δ δdelta δU+003B44
π π small pi πU+003C01,2,3,4
ω ω small omegaωU+003C94
ϖ ϖ Greek PIVϖU+003D61,2
  en spaceU+02002 
  em spaceU+02003 
  figure spaceU+02007 
  punctuation spaceU+02008 
  thin spaceU+02009 
  hair spaceU+0200A 
​ zero width spaceU+0200B 
‌‌zero width non joinerU+0200C2
‍‍zero width joinerU+0200D
‑ non-breaking hyphenU+020114
––en dashU+020132,4
——em dashU+020142,4
― quotation dash[1]U+02015
‘‘left single curly quoteU+020182,4
’’right single curly quoteU+020192,4
‚‚single low 9 quoteU+0201A2,4
““left double curly quoteU+0201C2,4
””right double curly quoteU+0201D2,4
„„double low 9 quoteU+0201E2,4
‡‡double daggerU+020212,4
……horizontal ellipseU+020262,4
 &nnbsp;narrow non-breaking space[2]U+0202F5
‰‰per mille signU+020302
″″double primeU+02033 
‸ caretU+020384
‹‹single left angle quoteU+020392,4
››single right angle quoteU+0203A2,4
‽ interrobangU+0203D4
⁂ asterismU+020424
⁄ ⁄ Fraction Slash[3] U+020441,2
⁠ Word Joiner[4]U+02060
€ € Euro U+020AC1,2
ℓ stylized lU+02113
™™trademark signU+021222,4
Ω Ohm Sign U+021261,2
←←leftward arrowU+021904
↑↑up arrowU+02191
→→rightward arrowU+021924
↓↓down arrowU+02193
↔↔double headed arrowU+02194
∂ ∂Partial Differential U+022021,2,4
∆ Increment U+02206
∏ ∏ N-Ary ProductU+0220F1,2
∑ ∑ N-Ary SummationU+022111,2
− − minus (subtraction) U+02212
√ √Square Root U+0221A1,2,4
∞ ∞ Infinity U+0221E1,2,4
∟ Right Angle U+0221F
∥ parallel toU+022254
∩ Intersection U+02229
∫ ∫ Integral U+0222B1,2,4
∴∴therefore triangle U+02234
∼ ∼ Similar To U+0223C1,2
≈ ≈ Almost equal U+022481,2
≠ ≠ Not Equal U+022601,2,4
≡≡Equivalent to U+02261
≤ ≤ Less Than or Equal To U+022641,2
≥ ≥ Greater Than or Equal To U+022651,2
◊ ◊ Open Diamond/Lozenge U+025CA1,2
☆ white starU+02606
♠♠spades suitU+026604
♡  White Heart Suit U+026614
♢  White Diamond Suit U+026621,2,4
♣ ♣club suit U+026634
♤  White Spade Suit U+02664
♥ ♥hearts suit U+02665
♦ ♦diamond Suit U+02666
♧  White Club Suit U+02667
♭  Music flat U+0266D
ff  Ligature ff U+0FB00
fi  Ligature fi U+0FB011,2
fl  Ligature fl U+0FB021,2,4
ſt  Ligature ft U+0FB05
  zero width nbsp[5]U+0FEFF

[edit] footnotes

  1. also called horizontal bar, used when no break is desired after or before an em dash.
  2. If you do not have support for this character you could use <span style="font-size: 50%">&nbsp;</span> as a substitute.
  3. The &frasl; character allows you to create fractions that flow more proportionately with the surrounding text. 1/2 vs. 12 and 3/4 vs. 34 See also #fractions
  4. replaces FEFF which is now byte order mark
  5. deprecated due to this symbol at the start of a file is a byte order mark

[edit] fractions

The fraction character method may be supplemented with other fraction solutions.

  • another method using small text: 12 or 34 [or with extra spacing & superscripts  2 or  4 ]
  • and another method using a mixture: 1/2 or 3/4 - using < sup > with the standard /
  • and another method using a mixture: 1/2 or 3/4 - using < small > and < sup > with standard /
  • and another method using a mixture: 12 or 34 - using < sup > with & frasl;

Note that the use of ligatures in text may cause searches to not find the character sequence. They can also cause problems when a document is converted if the new fonts in use does not contain the ligature.

  • The Unicode spaces - Shows a table of the various spaces available in Unicode with explanation. Many are in the above table.

[edit] For more information


HTML character entity references

Penn State HTML - Special Entity Codes

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