# Special characters

These special characters are shown in the table below they supplement the standard ASCII characters and ISO-8859-1 characters. This collection is often used in eBooks.

## Contents |

## [edit] Explanations

The numbers used to represent these characters are actually the Unicode values shown as decimal numbers. (See UTF-8) The page Named character references shows all of the Unicode characters by name as supported in HTML5. A column for Unicode has been added to this chart.

In some cases the same glyph will appear for two different characters. It is still important to use the correct number code or word code since some processing programs such as MathML may be depending on it to properly format the data.

The Greek alphabet is only shown by samples. As can be seen from the samples it lies between #913 and #937 for upper case and from #945 to #969 for lower case. In Unicode this would be U-0391 to U-03A9 and U-03B1 to U-03C9. (These are hexadecimal digits.) PML supports the full Greek alphabet (and Hebrew).

The table shows the decimal values for numeric entries but hexadecimal values will work just as well. For example decimal character reference for the Euro symbol (€) is € and the hexadecimal character reference €. The Unicode column is made up of hex characters. The table also shows the character entity references called word code in the table. These are standard HTML entities references.

## [edit] Using special characters in Windows

You can use a character map to show and use all of the characters available in a particular font set that you have on your system. Select "Start » Programs » Accessories » System Tools » Character Map" to load the character map. You can then use copy and paste to select and use these symbols in your document.

## [edit] Code Chart

Notes Column:

- 1 means this is supported on GEB products
- 2 means this is supported on ETI products
- 3 means this is supported on Amazon Kindle
- 4 means this is supported in PML - click Extended PML character table for a full list The full Greek alphabet is supported.
- 5 means this word code is
**not**in the list of named character references.

The codes in the range of 300's in the table below are needed to augment ISO-8859-1 to support the pronunciation guide in a dictionary and the alphabet of some European countries. See also ISO-8859-15. The Word Code is the Entity reference if available.

Number Code | Word Code | Description | Character | Unicode | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Ā | long A (A macron) | Ā | U+00100 | 4 | |

ā | long a (a macron) | ā | U+00101 | 4 | |

Ă | short A (A breve) | Ă | U+00102 | 4 | |

ă | short a (a breve) | ă | U+00103 | 4 | |

Ē | long E | Ē | U+00112 | 4 | |

ē | long e | ē | U+00113 | 4 | |

Ĕ | short E | Ĕ | U+00114 | ||

ĕ | short e | ĕ | U+00115 | 4 | |

Ī | long I | Ī | U+0012A | 4 | |

ī | long i | ī | U+0012B | 4 | |

Ĭ | short I | Ĭ | U+0012C | ||

ĭ | short i | ĭ | U+0012D | 4 | |

Ō | long O | Ō | U+0014C | ||

ō | long o | ō | U+0014D | 4 | |

Ŏ | short O | Ŏ | U+0014E | ||

ŏ | short o | ŏ | U+0014F | 4 | |

Œ | Œ | capital ligature OE | Œ | U+00152 | 2,4 |

œ | œ | small ligature oe | œ | U+00153 | 2,4 |

Š | Š | large S caron | Š | U+00160 | 4 |

š | š | small s caron | š | U+00161 | 4 |

Ū | long U | Ū | U+0016A | ||

ū | long u | ū | U+0016B | 4 | |

Ŭ | short U | Ŭ | U+0016C | ||

ŭ | short u | ŭ | U+0016D | 4 | |

Ÿ | Ÿ | capital Y umlat | Ÿ | U+00178 | 2,4 |

Ž | Ž | large Z caron | Ž | U+0017D | 4 |

ž | ž | small z caron | ž | U+0017E | 4 |

ſ | latin small s | ſ | U+0017F | ||

ƒ | ƒ | function (florin) | ƒ | U+00192 | 2,4 |

ʃ | small esh | ʃ | U+00283 | ||

ʻ | ʻokina/ʻáyin/ʻayn | ʻ | U+002BB | ||

ˆ | Circumflex accent. | ˆ | U+002C6 | 3 | |

ˇ | Caron/Hacek | ˇ | U+002C7 | 1,2,3,4 | |

˘ | Breve | ˘ | U+002D8 | 1,2,3,4 | |

˙ | Dot Accent (above) | ˙ | U+002D9 | 1,2,3,4 | |

˚ | Ring (above) | ˚ | U+002DA | 1,2,3 | |

˛ | Ogonek | ˛ | U+002DB | 1,2,3 | |

˜ | ˜ | small tilde | ˜ | U+002DC | 2,3 |

˝ | Double Acute Accent | ˝ | U+002DD | 1,2,3 | |

Α | Α | Capital Alpha | Α | U+00391 | 4 |

Β | Β | Beta | Β | U+00392 | 4 |

Γ | Γ | Gamma | Γ | U+00393 | 4 |

Δ | Δ | delta | Δ | U+00394 | 4 |

Π | Π | Capital Pi | Π | U+003A0 | 1,2,4 |

Σ | Σ | Sigma | Σ | U+003A3 | 1,2,4 |

Ω | Ω | Omega | Ω | U+003A9 | 1,2,4 |

α | α | alpha | α | U+003B1 | 4 |

β | β | beta | β | U+003B2 | 4 |

γ | γ | gamma | γ | U+003B3 | 4 |

δ | δ | delta | δ | U+003B4 | 4 |

π | π | small pi | π | U+003C0 | 1,2,3,4 |

ω | ω | small omega | ω | U+003C9 | 4 |

ϖ | ϖ | Greek PIV | ϖ | U+003D6 | 1,2 |

  | en space | U+02002 | |||

  | em space | U+02003 | |||

  | figure space | U+02007 | |||

  | punctuation space | U+02008 | |||

  |   | thin space | U+02009 | ||

  | hair space | U+0200A | |||

​ | zero width space | | U+0200B | ||

‌ | ‌ | zero width non joiner | | U+0200C | 2 |

‍ | ‍ | zero width joiner | | U+0200D | |

‑ | non-breaking hyphen | ‑ | U+02011 | 4 | |

– | – | en dash | – | U+02013 | 2,4 |

— | — | em dash | — | U+02014 | 2,4 |

― | quotation dash^{[1]} | ― | U+02015 | ||

‘ | ‘ | left single curly quote | ‘ | U+02018 | 2,4 |

’ | ’ | right single curly quote | ’ | U+02019 | 2,4 |

‚ | ‚ | single low 9 quote | ‚ | U+0201A | 2,4 |

“ | “ | left double curly quote | “ | U+0201C | 2,4 |

” | ” | right double curly quote | ” | U+0201D | 2,4 |

„ | „ | double low 9 quote | „ | U+0201E | 2,4 |

† | † | dagger | † | U+02020 | 2,4 |

‡ | ‡ | double dagger | ‡ | U+02021 | 2,4 |

• | • | bullet | • | U+02022 | 2,4 |

… | … | horizontal ellipse | … | U+02026 | 2,4 |

  | &nnbsp; | narrow non-breaking space^{[2]} | U+0202F | 5 | |

‰ | ‰ | per mille sign | ‰ | U+02030 | 2 |

′ | ′ | prime | ′ | U+02032 | |

″ | ″ | double prime | ″ | U+02033 | |

‸ | caret | ‸ | U+02038 | 4 | |

‹ | ‹ | single left angle quote | ‹ | U+02039 | 2,4 |

› | › | single right angle quote | › | U+0203A | 2,4 |

‽ | interrobang | ‽ | U+0203D | 4 | |

⁂ | asterism | ⁂ | U+02042 | 4 | |

⁄ | ⁄ | Fraction Slash^{[3]} | ⁄ | U+02044 | 1,2 |

⁠ | Word Joiner^{[4]} | | U+02060 | ||

€ | € | Euro | € | U+020AC | 1,2 |

ℓ | stylized l | ℓ | U+02113 | ||

™ | ™ | trademark sign | ™ | U+02122 | 2,4 |

Ω | Ohm Sign | Ω | U+02126 | 1,2 | |

← | ← | leftward arrow | ← | U+02190 | 4 |

↑ | ↑ | up arrow | ↑ | U+02191 | |

→ | → | rightward arrow | → | U+02192 | 4 |

↓ | ↓ | down arrow | ↓ | U+02193 | |

↔ | ↔ | double headed arrow | ↔ | U+02194 | |

∂ | ∂ | Partial Differential | ∂ | U+02202 | 1,2,4 |

∆ | Increment | ∆ | U+02206 | ||

∏ | ∏ | N-Ary Product | ∏ | U+0220F | 1,2 |

∑ | ∑ | N-Ary Summation | ∑ | U+02211 | 1,2 |

− | − | minus (subtraction) | − | U+02212 | |

√ | √ | Square Root | √ | U+0221A | 1,2,4 |

∞ | ∞ | Infinity | ∞ | U+0221E | 1,2,4 |

∟ | Right Angle | ∟ | U+0221F | ||

∥ | parallel to | ∥ | U+02225 | 4 | |

∩ | Intersection | ∩ | U+02229 | ||

∫ | ∫ | Integral | ∫ | U+0222B | 1,2,4 |

∴ | ∴ | therefore triangle | ∴ | U+02234 | |

∼ | ∼ | Similar To | ∼ | U+0223C | 1,2 |

≈ | ≈ | Almost equal | ≈ | U+02248 | 1,2 |

≠ | ≠ | Not Equal | ≠ | U+02260 | 1,2,4 |

≡ | ≡ | Equivalent to | ≡ | U+02261 | |

≤ | ≤ | Less Than or Equal To | ≤ | U+02264 | 1,2 |

≥ | ≥ | Greater Than or Equal To | ≥ | U+02265 | 1,2 |

◊ | ◊ | Open Diamond/Lozenge | ◊ | U+025CA | 1,2 |

☆ | white star | ☆ | U+02606 | ||

♠ | ♠ | spades suit | ♠ | U+02660 | 4 |

♡ | White Heart Suit | ♡ | U+02661 | 4 | |

♢ | White Diamond Suit | ♢ | U+02662 | 1,2,4 | |

♣ | ♣ | club suit | ♣ | U+02663 | 4 |

♤ | White Spade Suit | ♤ | U+02664 | ||

♥ | ♥ | hearts suit | ♥ | U+02665 | |

♦ | ♦ | diamond Suit | ♦ | U+02666 | |

♧ | White Club Suit | ♧ | U+02667 | ||

♭ | Music flat | ♭ | U+0266D | ||

ﬀ | Ligature ff | ﬀ | U+0FB00 | ||

ﬁ | Ligature fi | ﬁ | U+0FB01 | 1,2 | |

ﬂ | Ligature fl | ﬂ | U+0FB02 | 1,2,4 | |

ﬅ | Ligature ft | ﬅ | U+0FB05 | ||

﻿ | zero width nbsp^{[5]} | | U+0FEFF |

### [edit] footnotes

- ↑ also called horizontal bar, used when no break is desired after or before an em dash.
- ↑ If you do not have support for this character you could use <span style="font-size: 50%"> </span> as a substitute.
- ↑ The ⁄ character allows you to create fractions that flow more proportionately with the surrounding text. 1/2 vs.
^{1}⁄_{2}and 3/4 vs.^{3}⁄_{4}See also #fractions - ↑ replaces FEFF which is now byte order mark
- ↑ deprecated due to this symbol at the start of a file is a byte order mark

### [edit] fractions

The fraction character method may be supplemented with other fraction solutions.

- another method using small text: 1⁄2 or 3⁄4 [or with extra spacing & superscripts
^{1 }⁄ 2 or^{3 }⁄ 4 ] - and another method using a mixture:
^{1}/2 or^{3}/4 - using < sup > with the standard / - and another method using a mixture:
^{1}/2 or^{3}/4 - using < small > and < sup > with standard / - and another method using a mixture:
^{1}⁄2 or^{3}⁄4 - using < sup > with & frasl;

Note that the use of ligatures in text may cause searches to not find the character sequence. They can also cause problems when a document is converted if the new fonts in use does not contain the ligature.

- The Unicode spaces - Shows a table of the various spaces available in Unicode with explanation. Many are in the above table.

## [edit] For more information

http://webdesign.about.com/library/bl_htmlcodes.htm