Alphabet

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Alphabets are the building blocks of writing. The western (or Latin) alphabet can be seen under ASCII. The table in ISO 8859-5 shows the Cyrillic Alphabet Unicode set (also see Windows-1251). The characters can also be entered using their Named character references which was used to generate the content of this page.

Contents

[edit] Overview

The alphabet differed from earlier writing in that it was designed to capture the phonic sounds of speech and transfer them to a written form. This method allow for a common alphabet to represent more than one language and required only a few symbols. Earlier writing used symbols that represented full words or syllables which required many more symbols to capture a language and likely needed new symbols every time a new word was needed. Since they were not based on sounds per se they were locked into one or only a few related languages. Modern usage has augmented the alphabet in some languages by using accent marks to tweak the sound being represented. Eastern Europe uses the Cyrillic alphabet to capture the sounds of the languages near Asia. Several other alphabets exist that are not shown here.

The oldest of the phonic alphabets, shown here, is the Hebrew which differs from later alphabets in that it does not have vowels, nor does it have lower case. The symbols shown here are from modern Hebrew alphabet which differ completely from their earlier form and were taken from the Aramaic. The Greek followed next. It included vowels and eventually both cases although initially it only had upper case.

Alphabets became the choice for writing and developed specific changes that are not related to phonics. These changes, such as lower case and upper case as well as punctuation, are specific to typography and ease of use. The Alphabet is a subset of character sets which includes the alphabet, numbers, punctuation, and special purpose characters and symbols.

[edit] Greek

The decimal entity number needs a & in front. The page HTML entities‎‎ contains the Greek alphabet with its entity names.

ucase decimal Unicode name lcase decimal unicode
Α #913; \U0391 ALPHA α #945; \U03B1
Β #914; \U0392 BETA β #946; \U03B2
Γ #915; \U0393 GAMMA γ #947; \U03B3
Δ #916; \U0394 DELTA δ #948; \U03B4
Ε #917; \U0395 EPSILON ε #949; \U03B5
Ζ #918; \U0396 ZETA ζ #950; \U03B6
Η #919; \U0397 ETA η #951; \U03B7
Θ #920; \U0398 THETA θ #952; \U03B8
Ι #921; \U0399 IOTA ι #953; \U03B9
Κ #922; \U039A KAPPA κ #954; \U03BA
Λ #923; \U039B LAMBDA λ #955; \U03BB
Μ #924; \U039C MU μ #956; \U03BC
Ν #925; \U039D NU ν #957; \U03BD
Ξ #926; \U039E XI ξ #958; \U03BE
Ο #927; \U039F OMICRON ο #959; \U03BF
Π #928; \U03A0 PI π #960; \U03C0
Ρ #929; \U03A1 RHO ρ #961; \U03C1
Final Sigma ς #962; \U03C2
Σ #931; \U03A3 SIGMA σ #963; \U03C3
Τ #932; \U03A4 TAU τ #964; \U03C4
Υ #933; \U03A5 UPSILON υ #965; \U03C5
Φ #934; \U03A6 PHI φ #966; \U03C6
Χ #935; \U03A7 CHI χ #967; \U03C7
Ψ #936; \U03A8 PSI ψ #968; \U03C8
Ω #937; \U03A9 OMEGA ω #969; \U03C9
Theta symbol ϑ #977; \U03D1
Digamma ϝ #989; \U03DD

For variations and ancient forms see: Greek Unicode Entities at Penn State University.

[edit] Hebrew

The characters are right to left making entry difficult for mixed text on a line. Easier entry method is to use the decimal or Unicode entries. The & is need to make the decimal numbers work.

letter decimal Unicode name
א #1488; \U05D0 ALEPH
ב #1489; \U05D1 BETH
ג #1490; \U05D2 GIMEL
ד #1491; \U05D3 DALET
ה #1492; \U05D4 HE
ו #1493; \U05D5 VAV
ז #1494; \U05D6 ZAYIN
ח #1495; \U05D7 HET
ט #1496; \U05D8 TET
י #1497; \U05D9 YOD
ך #1498; \U05DA final KAF
כ #1499; \U05DB KAF
ל #1500; \U05DC LAMED
ם #1501; \U05DD final MEM
מ #1502; \U05DE MEM
ן #1503; \U05DF final NUN
נ #1504; \U05E0 NUN
ס #1505; \U05E1 SAMEKH
ע #1506; \U05E2 AYIN
ף #1507; \U05E3 final PE
פ #1508; \U05E4 PE
ץ #1509; \U05E5 final TSADI
צ #1510; \U05E6 TSADI
ק #1511; \U05E7 QOF
ר #1512; \U05E8 RESH
ת #1514; \U05EA TAV
שׁ #64298; \UFB2A SINH with shin dot
שׂ #64299; \UFB2B SINH with sin dot

[edit] Western with Script glyphs

Normally the western alphabet variations in glyphs are done by using a different set of fonts controlling such differences as serif or sans-serif. However there are also completely different Unicode designations for certain representations of the western alphabet. Note that this collection is taken from Named character references, where each name includes the letters scr follow by a semicolon. It could be used in an HTML5 based document, but they will not sort properly. To make them sort properly you must use symbols in the range U+1D49C – U+1D4CF. For example ℬ should be U+1D49D (𝒝). There is no clean solution.

UName Unicode Letter lname Unicode letter
Ascr; U+1D49C 𝒜 ascr; U+1D4B6 𝒶
Bscr; U+0212C bscr; U+1D4B7 𝒷
Cscr; U+1D49E 𝒞 cscr; U+1D4B8 𝒸
Dscr; U+1D49F 𝒟 dscr; U+1D4B9 𝒹
Escr; U+02130 escr; U+0212F
Fscr; U+02131 fscr; U+1D4BB 𝒻
Gscr; U+1D4A2 𝒢 gscr; U+0210A
Hscr; U+0210B hscr; U+1D4BD 𝒽
Iscr; U+02110 iscr; U+1D4BE 𝒾
Jscr; U+1D4A5 𝒥 jscr; U+1D4BF 𝒿
Kscr; U+1D4A6 𝒦 kscr; U+1D4C0 𝓀
Lscr; U+02112 lscr; U+1D4C1 𝓁
Mscr; U+02133 mscr; U+1D4C2 𝓂
Nscr; U+1D4A9 𝒩 nscr; U+1D4C3 𝓃
Oscr; U+1D4AA 𝒪 oscr; U+02134
Pscr; U+1D4AB 𝒫 pscr; U+1D4C5 𝓅
Qscr; U+1D4AC 𝒬 qscr; U+1D4C6 𝓆
Rscr; U+0211B rscr; U+1D4C7 𝓇
Sscr; U+1D4AE 𝒮 sscr; U+1D4C8 𝓈
Tscr; U+1D4AF 𝒯 tscr; U+1D4C9 𝓉
Uscr; U+1D4B0 𝒰 uscr; U+1D4CA 𝓊
Vscr; U+1D4B1 𝒱 vscr; U+1D4CB 𝓋
Wscr; U+1D4B2 𝒲 wscr; U+1D4CC 𝓌
Xscr; U+1D4B3 𝒳 xscr; U+1D4CD 𝓍
Yscr; U+1D4B4 𝒴 yscr; U+1D4CE 𝓎
Zscr; U+1D4B5 𝒵 zscr; U+1D4CF 𝓏

[edit] Western with OPF glyphs

Note that this collection is taken from Named character references, where each name includes the letters opf followed by a semicolon. It could be used in an HTML5 based document, but they will not sort properly. To make them sort properly you must use symbols in the range U+1D538 – U+1D56B. For example ℂ should be U+1D53A (𝔺). There is no clean solution.

UName Unicode Letter lname Unicode letter
Aopf; U+1D538 𝔸 aopf; U+1D552 𝕒
Bopf; U+1D539 𝔹 bopf; U+1D553 𝕓
Copf; U+02102 copf; U+1D554 𝕔
Dopf; U+1D53B 𝔻 dscr; U+1D555 𝕕
Eopf; U+1D53C 𝔼 eopf; U+1D556 𝕖
Fopf; U+1D53D 𝔽 fopf; U+1D557 𝕗
Gopf; U+1D53E 𝔾 gopf; U+1D558 𝕘
Hopf; U+0210D hopf; U+1D559 𝕙
Iopf; U+1D540 𝕀 iopf; U+1D55A 𝕚
Jopf; U+1D541 𝕁 jopf; U+1D55B 𝕛
Kopf; U+1D542 𝕂 kopf; U+1D55C 𝕜
Lopf; U+1D543 𝕃 lopf; U+1D55D 𝕝
Mopf; U+1D544 𝕄 mopf; U+1D55E 𝕞
Nopf; U+02115 nopf; U+1D55F 𝕟
Oopf; U+1D546 𝕆 oopf; U+1D560 𝕠
Popf; U+02119 popf; U+1D561 𝕡
Qopf; U+0211A qopf; U+1D562 𝕢
Ropf; U+0211D ropf; U+1D563 𝕣
Sopf; U+1D54A 𝕊 sopf; U+1D564 𝕤
Topf; U+1D54B 𝕋 topf; U+1D565 𝕥
Uopf; U+1D54C 𝕌 uopf; U+1D566 𝕦
Vopf; U+1D54D 𝕍 vopf; U+1D567 𝕧
Wopf; U+1D54E 𝕎 wopf; U+1D568 𝕨
Xopf; U+1D54F 𝕏 xopf; U+1D569 𝕩
Yopf; U+1D550 𝕐 yopf; U+1D56A 𝕪
Zopf; U+02124 zopf; U+1D56B 𝕫

[edit] Western with FR glyphs

Note that this collection is taken from Named character references, where each name includes the letters fr followed by a semicolon. It could be used in an HTML5 based document, but they will not sort properly. To make them sort properly you must use symbols in the range U+1D504 – U+1D537. For example ℭ should be U+1D506 (𝔆). There is no clean solution.

UName Unicode Letter lname Unicode letter
Afr; U+1D504 𝔄 afr; U+1D51E 𝔞
Bfr; U+1D505 𝔅 bfr; U+1D51F 𝔟
Cfr; U+0212D cfr; U+1D520 𝔠
Dfr; U+1D507 𝔇 dfr; U+1D521 𝔡
Efr; U+1D508 𝔈 efr; U+1D522 𝔢
Ffr; U+1D509 𝔉 ffr; U+1D523 𝔣
Gfr; U+1D50A 𝔊 gfr; U+1D524 𝔤
Hfr; U+0210C hfr; U+1D525 𝔥
Ifr; U+02111 ifr; U+1D526 𝔦
Jfr; U+1D50D 𝔍 jfr; U+1D527 𝔧
Kfr; U+1D50E 𝔎 kfr; U+1D528 𝔨
Lfr; U+1D50F 𝔏 lfr; U+1D529 𝔩
Mfr; U+1D510 𝔐 mfr; U+1D52A 𝔪
Nfr; U+1D511 𝔑 nfr; U+1D52B 𝔫
Ofr; U+1D512 𝔒 ofr; U+1D52C 𝔬
Pfr; U+1D513 𝔓 pfr; U+1D52D 𝔭
Qfr; U+1D514 𝔔 qfr; U+1D52E 𝔮
Rfr; U+0211C rfr; U+1D52F 𝔯
Sfr; U+1D516 𝔖 sfr; U+1D530 𝔰
Tfr; U+1D517 𝔗 tfr; U+1D531 𝔱
Ufr; U+1D518 𝔘 ufr; U+1D532 𝔲
Vfr; U+1D519 𝔙 vfr; U+1D533 𝔳
Wfr; U+1D51A 𝔚 wfr; U+1D534 𝔴
Xfr; U+1D51B 𝔛 xfr; U+1D535 𝔵
Yfr; U+1D51C 𝔜 yfr; U+1D536 𝔶
Zfr; U+02128 zfr; U+1D537 𝔷
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