# MathML

MathML 2.0, a W3C Recommendation was released on 21 Feb 2001. A product of the W3C Math working group, MathML is a low-level specification for describing mathematics as a basis for machine to machine communication.

## Contents |

## [edit] Overview

MathML provides a much needed foundation for the inclusion of mathematical expressions in Web pages.

This standard is a required part of HTML5 and is supported in ePub 3 and will be available when these are implemented in eBook Readers. It permits a program to compute a formula and thus the formula can be displayed in a format that is appropriate for the screen size. It can also be interpreted audibly to allow visually impaired persons to actually hear the formula.

Here is an example:

## [edit] Math elements

A few elements include:

- An
**mi**element represents a symbolic name or arbitrary text that should be rendered as an identifier. Identifiers can include variables, function names, and symbolic constants. - An
**mo**element represents a mathematical operator. It should be used with traditional math operators and fence characters such as braces, parentheses, and "absolute value" bars; separators such as comma and semicolon; and mathematical accents such as a bar or tilde over a symbol. It may also include invisible operators like implied multiplication. - An
**mn**element represents a number. Examples include:- <mn> 2 </mn>
- <mn> 0.123 </mn>
- <mn> 1,000,000 </mn>
- <mn> 2.1e10 </mn>
- <mn> 0xFFEF </mn>
- <mn> MCMLXIX </mn>
- <mn> twenty one </mn>

- An
**mrow**is an organizational presentation element showing a row of operations. mrow elements can be nested as needed.

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## [edit] Converting MathML

Online converter - This page can be used to create Math equations interactively. It supports the generation of MathML. It can also create GIF images.

ePUB version 2 is an emerging standard but it does not support MathML however it does support SVG. Now there is a free converter that will convert MathML to SVG. Of course ePub 3 does support MathML.

## [edit] A larger example

This example implements a display of the quadratic equation.

<mrow> <mi>x</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <mrow> <mo>-</mo> <mi>b</mi> </mrow> <mo>±<!--PLUS-MINUS SIGN XB1--></mo> <msqrt> <mrow> <msup> <mi>b</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mn>4</mn> <mo>⁢<!--INVISIBLE TIMES x2062--></mo> <mi>a</mi> <mo>⁢<!--INVISIBLE TIMES x2062--></mo> <mi>c</mi> </mrow> </mrow> </msqrt> </mrow> <mrow> <mn>2</mn> <mo>⁢<!--INVISIBLE TIMES--></mo> <mi>a</mi> </mrow> </mfrac> </mrow>

## [edit] For more information

- http://www.w3.org/Math/
- http://www.w3.org/TR/MathML/
- Fonts for MathML - from Mozilla, includes the STIX fonts.
- MathML is supported in ePub 3.